Vanguard believes material environmental, social, and governance (ESG) risks can impact long-term value creation in portfolio companies. As a result, ESG considerations are integrated into product design and investment processes across our funds.
Kunal Mehta, senior investment specialist, fixed income, and Loubna Moudanib, credit analyst in Vanguard's Fixed Income Group, explore the opportunities and risks in the growing universe of green bonds.
U.S. equities outperformed their international counterparts by 8 percentage points per year on average over the 10 years ended December 31, 2019. However, our proprietary Vanguard Capital Markets Model (VCMM) suggests that this outperformance is unlikely to persist over the next 10 years.
This research paper presents a methodology for estimating the trading volume on US exchanges attributable to the portfolio management activity of index funds, index ETFs and other indexing strategies. We estimate that index funds and index ETFs currently account for approximately 1% of US trading volume.
This Vanguard research paper explores how tightening financial conditions and greater policy uncertainty influence the likelihood of recession. The paper also looks at the effects on US Federal Reserve interest rate policy.
19 Apr 2019
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